Experts believe that biomarkers offer most promising paths to diagnose Alzheimer’s or dementia. A biomarker is something that can reliably indicate the presence of disease.
Certain possible biomarkers are being studied for their strength to indicate initial stages of Dementia or Alzheimer's disease such as including beta-amyloid and tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain changes detectable by imaging. However, three biomarkers have been well-established and validated internationally to diagnose AD in CSF with ELISAs: ?-amyloid (1–42) [A? (1–42)], total tau and phospho-tau-181.